39 – First evidence of water craft
65,000 years ago
Since no land connection existed between Asia and Australia, Australia’s people must have arrived by boat. The first human crossing by boats likely occurred across a 55-mile open sea from Indonesia to Australia around 65,000 years ago. These humans, who made and left a variety of stone tools excavated from a rock shelter in northwest Australia date, would have been among the first to leave Africa and migrate across Asia before 65,000 years ago. Read about how cumulative culture allowed humans to evolve technology that would enable them to create boats seaworthy enough to cross from Asia to Australia.
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Environmental and Climate Changes
Earth’s climate remains relatively stable with alternating glacial and interglacial periods
Glacial/interglacial cycles changed 100,000 to 41,000 years
Mount Toba eruption—Largest volcanic eruption in two million years creates global winter 74,000 Ya