31 – Flake-based projectile points and blade technology

300,000 years ago

The “Levallois” technique for stone tool making involved a sequenced pattern of removing stone flakes from a prepared core, called a bifacial reduction sequence. This allowed for smaller, sharp blades and projectile points. This technique was employed by both Neandertal in Europe and early modern humans in Africa and other regions. Evidence of stone tool technology around the same time from Quesem Cave in Israel shows that hominins were also controlling fire to heat treat stones to enhance the production of tools.

Image credit Benjamin Schoville.


    Pleistocene2.58 million to 11,700 years ago

Environmental and Climate Changes

  • Earth’s climate remains relatively stable with alternating glacial and interglacial periods

Changing Species